In the Soviet era, the nomadic herdsmen of Central Asia were part of a planned economy that at best forced them to alter their lifestyles to adapt to collective farming (in Mongolia), and at worst forced them to become sedentary, leading to unprecedented food shortages (in Kazakhstan).
It is now twenty years since the fall of the Soviet Union. The transition from a planned economy to free-market capitalism is under way, but the reality often falls short of the herdsmen's dreams.
These pictures were taken on trips to Kazakhstan and Mongolia in 2003 and 2005.